A 2014 meta-analysis of the literature to date on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for substance use disorders suggests that these interventions can reduce consumption of alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, marijuana, cigarettes, and opiates, compared to several types of controls. The research by Alberto Chiesa and Alessandro Serretti, published in the journal Substance Use and Misuse, includes 24 studies published before 2012. The authors also found some evidence that MBIs are associated with reduced craving and increased mindfulness. Most of the studies included in the meta-analysis were small, so their generalizability is limited.
A 2014 article by S. Bowen and colleagues in the journal JAMA Psychiatry compared mindfulness-based relapse prevention with standard relapse prevention and treatment as usual for people recovering from substance abuse. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention combines the cognitive behavioral approach of standard relapse prevention with MBIs that have been successful in other studies.
Bowen et al. found that both standard relapse prevention and mindfulness-based relapse prevention lowered the risk of relapse and reduced days of substance use at 6 months, compared to treatment as usual. The standard treatment delayed first drug use, but the mindfulness intervention decreased use at the 12-month mark compared to both standard relapse prevention and treatment as usual.